Mars Bars: The Hidden Gender Stereotypes on a Chocolate Planet

“Man up” and “like a girl” are just two examples of sexist sayings common in American culture today. Could candy have the power to reinforce such sayings? Although candy may be seen as mere snack indulgences, chocolates such as Milky Ways helped shape gender stereotypes and gender norms of the past and present.

Beginning in the late 1800s, chocolate was originally advertised for female consumption (Inness 18) as depicted in the below advertisement selling Whitman’ chocolate.


Advertisement for Whitman’s  Chocolates, 1900

The ad portrays a man in a suit holding a box of chocolate and two woman wearing frilly dresses carefully selecting chocolates from the box. The women’s glances suggest that they are both intrigued by the chocolate and the man. Both women are standing behind the man, reinforcing the dominance that men had over women and “the ideology that identified women as homemakers and men as breadwinners” (Parkin 1). By labeling women as “homemakers,” they were viewed has having “much less personal power and social status” compared to men (Manton 2).


Milky Way advertisement, “There’s a Thrill in Every Bite of Milky Way,” Saturday Evening Post, July 1931.


The idea of chocolate being sold to women was also illustrated in this ad from the 1930s. Advertisers display a happy woman laying on a sunny beach, implying that Milky Way consumers will feel as though they are in paradise when indulging in a Milky Way. This idea of “paradise” could appeal to the independent woman who recently earned the right to vote, but also to the housewife who was looking for an escape from the never ending flow of duties such as “maintaining the family’s health, raising the children, and keeping the household on an efficient daily schedule” (Shapiro 29). The ad’s emphasis on “every bite” correlates to the big role the small Milky Way bar played in the paradise image–implying, as it does, that this tiny object exerted an overwhelmingly positive impact on women in the 1930s. The small size of the Milky Way also emphasizes the stereotype of woman as delicate creatures. Carefully and lightly unwrapping the Milky Way, the woman in this ad does not tightly grasp the candy as that would reinforce manly actions instead of feminine ones. 

Mars bar advertisement, “Good Cheer on Both Fronts,” 1943

More masculine actions are illustrated in Milky Way advertisements related to wartime efforts. As depicted in this advertisement from 1943, Milky Way bars provided a source of energy for all types of men who contributed to war efforts. For men, eating candy “was depicted as a practical activity that enhanced strength and improved endurance” (Inness 31), characteristics that were essential to wining the war. Advertisers illustrate the man to the right of the ad as being strong and hardworking by depicting him in an army outfit; and the man to the left of the ad as being hardworking and strong through the dirt on his face and the stains on his shirt. This ad depicted Milky Ways as a unifying constant source of strength and energy for all types of working men “on both fronts.” The way the men are holding the bars also reinforces the gender stereotype of men being brave, heartier, and stronger than women. Both men are grabbing the Milky Ways, unlike the delicate peeling action that the women depicted in Milky Way ads. The men are also creating an almost  fist like shape with their hands, which emphasizes their role and duty in fighting for their country during times of war.


Mars bar advertisement, c. 1930

Mars also created candy bar ads that appealed to boys. Targeting young men, the advertisement illustrated on the left has only one distinctive word: ”Mars.” The simplicity of the ad represents how the ad is meant for children. The only thing that boys need to know is that eating A Mars bar will make them as happy as the child in the ad.   

Targeting children is also seen in the video (circa 1960) below as advertisers created a more playful atmosphere by adding a cartoon cow. Also, by arguing how there is so much “fresh milk” in Milky Ways, the ad targeted mothers who were under pressure to “satisfy their families” (Inness 54) while also picking nutritions foods.

Chocolate advertisements have contributed to gender stereotypes of men being strong and women being weak. Today, candy and chocolate are highly associated with children and occasions such as Halloween; however, there are still commercials and advertisements that will enforce gender stereotypes to promote their food product.   

Works Cited

Inness, Sherrie A. Kitchen Culture in America: Popular Representations of Food, Gender, and Race. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania, 2001. Print.

Manton, Catherine. Fed Up: Women and Food in America. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 1999. Print.

“Neat Designs – 20 Interesting Vintage Candy Ads.” Neat Designs. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 July 2015. <>

Parkin, Katherine J. Food Is Love: Food Advertising and Gender Roles in Modern America. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania, 2006. Print.

Shapiro, Laura. Perfection Salad: Women and Cooking at the Turn of the Century. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1986. Print.

“Vintage – Milky Way Candy Bar Television Commercial.” YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 01 July 2015. <>.

Whitman’s. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. <>.



Crisco Advertisements at the Dawn of the 20th Century

Minny Jackson in “The Help” recommends that it will remove gum from your hair and cure diaper rash. You can use it as a moisturizer or to soften your husbands scaly feet. She says it can clean the goo from a price tag and even take the squeak out of a door hinge. If your lights get cut off, stick a wick in it and burn it like a candle. And after all of that, she says, it will still fry your chicken! Crisco is a vegetable-based shortening used primarily for cooking, but has since been vilified for its negative health effects. Nonetheless, since its invention in 1910, Procter & Gamble have used many ways to make Crisco attractive to their ever-evolving audience of housewives.

Crisco. “Pure food from a clean factory” advertisement. 1915.

At the beginning of its history, Crisco was marketed as a new, exciting, and scientific discovery. The explanation to the whipped texture of their product–hydrogen atoms,–made housework seem more scientific and made women’s work sound more legitimate. To counteract its scientific nature, Crisco’s clean and pure image came into play to assure their consumers that it was completely safe for consumption. In this 1915 advertisement, the catch copy, “Clean food from a clean factory,” emphasizes the organized interior of the factory and the clean, white uniforms of the workers. The workers pictured in the ad are all women; to convey the message of purity and cleanliness Crisco utilized women daintily dressed in white. From this, it can be said that women were considered to be clean and pure, just like Crisco! Furthermore, the original packaging came in a can, and inside the can was another wrapper, and within the wrapper was the actual Crisco, ensuring that the product would be fresh when the consumer first opened it. Cleanliness and purity were two key phrases when looking at advertisements from this era.

Crisco Advertisement. “Food will win the war; don’t waste it.” 1918.

A few years later, towards the end of World War I, Crisco advertisements started to take a different turn. Advertisements still featured women, but the ads started to suggest that, not only was Crisco superior to substitutes such as lard and butter, but it was also the patriotic choice. The banner of this 1918 advertisement, “Food Will Win the War: Don’t Waste It!” suggests women best to help the war effort from their own kitchens. Crisco was the perfect for this movement because as early as 1913, they were advertising how economical the product was, showing how the product–after being strained–could be used over and over again.

Hebrew Crisco Recipes Cookbook. 1933.

Hebrew advertisements for Crisco. 1938.

Crisco also marketed toward certain ethnic groups, specifically Jewish immigrants. Procter & Gamble, when first releasing Crisco, sent it to grocers across the United States to have “Crisco teas” to promote and publicize the product. Word spread quickly. When Crisco reached Cincinnati, the Cincinnati rabbi is rumored to have said, “The Hebrew race had been waiting 4,000 years for Crisco.” The plant-based nature of Crisco fell within the Jewish dietary restrictions, making it the perfect product to market towards Jewish immigrants. Procter & Gamble quickly caught on and began advertising in Hebrew, to appeal to older generations within immigrant families, who couldn’t speak English and didn’t work, thus would be in the house doing housework most of the time. The pinnacle of this is the Hebrew Crisco cookbook released in 1933. The cookbook was written in both Hebrew and English, to appeal to both the older and younger generation in a Jewish family. Moreover, this bilingual cookbook also worked as a useful tool in learning English within the kitchen, for women who did not work nor have chances to go outside of their Jewish community.

Through the first few decades of the 20th century, Procter & Gamble have taken many approaches to influence housewives to give Crisco a try. Procter & Gamble were also very quick to realize exactly what type of people their product would appeal to, and were very effective in terms of advertising to catch the attention of their target audience. Not only did they market towards ethnic groups, but they also challenged American women to prove their identity by using their products. Although Crisco is not considered an unhealthy indulgence of the past, the marks it has left on advertising technique will last forever.


Stockett, Kathryn. The Help. New York: Amy Einhorn, 2009. Print.

Eades, Michael R., M.D. “Cooking with Non-trans Fats/the Crisco Story.”Protein Power. N.p., 12 Dec. 2006. Web. 02 July 2015. <>.

Shapiro, Laura. Perfection Salad: Women and Cooking at the Turn of the Century. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1986. 214-16. Print.

“Our History.” About Crisco. Procter & Gamble, n.d. Web. 02 July 2015. <>.

Midov, Alexander A. “Kosher Nostaliga: Crisco Yiddish Cookbook.”Kosherology. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 July 2015. <>.

Diner, Hasia R. “Food Fights: Immigrant Jews and the Lure of America.”Hungering for America: Italian, Irish, and Jewish Foodways in the Age of Migration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2001. 178-219. Print.


Molding Americans: How Jell-O Advertising has Shaped (and Constrained) the Citizenry

Whether it is jiggling to hip hop music (JELLO) or soaking up alcohol before being devoured by college students (Jon), it would seem that Jell-O is a medium that simply absorbs and echoes the cultural fixations of its time. But upon closer examination, it becomes apparent that this unassuming substance has had a restrictive, even conforming effect on its consumers. There’s more than water and horse hooves in that colorful dessert alternative. Jell-O has informed the public’s understanding of what it means to be properly gendered and American.

A recurring theme in Jell-O’s advertising campaign can be termed, at best, aggressive patriotism, and at worst, ethnocentrism and xenophobia. In one of its early advertisements in 1925, the company fabricated nostalgia by associating their product with George Washington and the slogan “America’s Most Favorite Dessert.” The illustration also functions to class the gelatin by presenting Jell-O in dainty glass dishes on a silver tray, framed by toile wallpaper and dignified candlesticks. This innocuous reference to United States history would be taken to an extreme in years to come.

"Jell-O: America's Most Famous Dessert" c. 1925

“Jell-O: America’s Most Famous Dessert” c. 1925

Looking at a commercial released in 1958, the notion that a Chinese baby cannot consume Jell-O with chopsticks is loaded with cultural implications.

According to Inness, when the Korean War broke out in 1950, “…the anti-Chinese feelings that had been submerged during World War II reemerged”(Secret Ingredients 44). Assimilation, symbolized by the use of the spoon (“great Western invention”(horrorsnark)), is the necessary pre-cursor to eating the product. Jell-O has rendered itself literally inaccessible and inedible to foreigners clinging to their own traditions. If you want a piece of America, you have to play by their rules. One could easily reject this commercial as a reflection of the political climate of that historical moment, but a commercial released in December of 2012 would suggest otherwise.

Mayans are comfortably distant enough, and the tone is just playful enough, for the total invalidation of their culture (e.g. “Those are some pretty lame gifts. No wonder the gods decided to end the world.”(Adpressive)) to sit with American viewers. Note that the entire expedition is male, with the only white man serving as the leader and his racially ambiguous crew functioning as sherpas for the Jell-O. This humorous ad may not register as troubling compared to its 1958 predecessor, but the practices of a non-Western civilization are nonetheless being disavowed.

But all whites are not created equal in the eyes of Jell-O advertisers. According to Inness,

When picking a food, a girl was taught that aesthetics was more important than taste… Women were supposed to be concerned about appearance in all areas of their lives…Thus, cookbooks were not just teaching readers how to concoct a Jell-O salad; they were also subtly demonstrating how femininity was constituted. (Kitchen Culture in America 123-124)

"Now's the time for Jell-O" c. 1950

“Now’s the time for Jell-O” c. 1950

The Jell-O Company made this demonstration considerably less “subtle” in their 1950’s advertisement of a woman attempting (and failing) to emulate a thinner, more flexible female on her TV screen. The tagline “Now’s the time for Jell-O” makes the advertisers’ dissatisfaction with her body explicit.

"Now's the time for Jell-O" c. 1952

“Now’s the time for Jell-O” c. 1952

In a stylistically similar 1950’s advertisement, Jell-O promises to make a scrawny young boy a weightlifting champion. Thus, according to these images, the convenience gelatin has the magical, impossible power to both aid women in losing weight and help men gain muscle. By juxtaposing these visual texts, one exposes Jell-O’s commitment to gender ideals above the actual capabilities of its product.

According to Manton, “Each American can choose to make ‘kitchen-counter reforms,’… Each citizen individually can choose to “vote with your fork” each time she or he goes food shopping or eats out”(Manton 9). But what if individuals are being subliminally told that they are not full citizens because of their body, race, culture, or gender? It may only take moments to assemble and serve gelatin, but according to advertisers, one must prepare and mold oneself— an endeavor which takes considerably more effort. Jell-O’s advertisers have infused the seemingly limpid substance with exclusion and ethnocentrism. Deceit in the name of marketing is to be expected, but disenfranchisement cannot be tolerated, no matter how “convenient” it may be.

Work Cited

Adpressive. “JELL-O Funpocalypse : December 21st, 2012 TV Commercial.” YouTube. YouTube, 18 Dec 2012. Web. 19 July 2013.

horrorsnark. “Jello Commercial- Chinese Baby.” YouTube. YouTube, 28 Jun 2010. Web. 18 July 2013.

Inness, Sherrie. Secret Ingredients: Race, Gender, and Class at the Dinner Table. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.

Inness, Sherrie. Kitchen Culture in America: Popular Representations of Food, Gender, and Race. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001.

Jell-O Company Inc.. “30533590: Jell-O Magazine Advert.” Illustration. 1952. The Advertising Archives. Web. 18 July 2013.

Jell-O Company Inc.. “Jell-O: America’s Most Famous Dessert.” Illustration. 1925. Emergence of Advertising in America: 1850-1920. Library of Congress. Web. 18 July 2013

Jell-O Company Inc.. Jell-O Advertisement. Illustration. n.d. Vintage Ad Browser. Web. 18 July 2013.

JELLO. “JELL-O Jiggle-It App.” YouTube. YouTube, 13 Sep 2011. Web. 18 July 2013.

Jon. “21 Jello Shot Recipes for College Students.” The Campus Companion. 19 November 2011. Web. 18 July 2013. <>

Manton, Catherine. Fed Up: Women and Food in America. Westport: Bergin & Garvey, 1999.

From Celebration to Procrastination: Cakes and Creativity in the 1950s

Traditionally, cakes are emblematic of significant celebration. From first birthday cakes to wedding cakes and anniversary cakes, our lives are punctuated by celebratory baked goods. Part of this is due to the communal nature of cakes; they are intended to be divided and shared between those partaking in the event. Cakes also remain a central feature of celebrations because of the perceived time and effort involved in their preparation and decoration.

Cakes are a treat steeped in frosted tradition. Even focusing solely on American culture, there are rituals surrounding cakes which are upheld with startling continuity. In many celebrations, for example, the first cut into the cake is symbolic. For birthdays, it is the opportunity to make a wish, for married couples, the communal first slice symbolizes unity (as John and Jackie exhibited below on their wedding day in 1953). And both, of course, make for significant photo opportunities.

John F. Kennedy and his new bride, Jackie, cut their wedding cake. 1953.

John F. Kennedy and his new bride, Jackie, cut their wedding cake. 1953.

Despite the symbolism and tradition associated with baking and eating cakes, however, the post-war years of the 1950s heralded an era in which cakes became every day staples for the American housewife. Thanks in large part to the entry of ready-made cake mix to the public, brands like Betty Crocker and Pillsbury began marketing their products as both celebratory and every day treats.

Cake mixes had been in development in America since the 1920s, and were almost ready for public distribution when World War II broke out. Flour manufacturers then turned their focus to developing bread mixes to feed the troops (Byrn 20). By 1948, however, men were back to work, and women who had been employed during the war were back in the kitchen. The metaphorical oven was preheated and ready-made cake mix rolled out into American stores.

The convenience that packet cake mixes provided, in combination with the availability of new-fangled appliances, made extravagant-looking cakes something that was expected of the American housewife. The promise of fail-safe cakes must have been appealing for families living in the image-conscious post-war period which followed two decades of poverty, joblessness, and war. Advertisements like the below from Betty Crocker shows seven beautiful cakes – one for each day of the week – which, it is assumed, the good housewife could whip up with ease.

"Seven days of Betty Crocker creations," ca.1953

“Seven days of Betty Crocker creations,” ca.1953

Problems arose for women (and advertisers), however, following the post-war boom in convenience products. In the case of pre-made cake mixes, the simpler baking became, the more genius had to be attributed to the housewife’s creation. Parkin notes that, during this time, advertisers capitalized on women’s feelings of guilt and inadequacies with messages of false praise in which their intelligence was heralded (51). The below advertisement for Pillsbury ready-made frosting is a good example of attempts at a forced link between convenience products and housewives’ acumen.

Source: YouTube

To a modern viewer, perhaps college-professor-turned-disc-jockey Erwin Johnson seems an odd choice to spruik frosting. To the 1950s housewife, however, the words of an educated older white gentleman would have given the product credence; if it’s good enough for him, it’s good enough for your family. The fact that he repeats his words in French is further proof that he is not only educated, but cultured – contrasted again by the female host who can’t ‘talk French like that’.

Page proof of Betty Crocker advertisement, 1958

Page proof of Betty Crocker advertisement, 1958

According to Ericka Endrijonas in ‘Cooking for a Family in the 1950s’, the emergence of convenience foods in the 1950s allowed opportunity for ‘women’s personal development’ (157). In the absence of any real opportunity for ‘personal development’, however, the time saved by convenience products left a void to be filled by the housewife. This is a sentiment echoed by Betty Friedan in chapter 10 of The Feminine Mystique. Speaking in depth about ‘housework expanding to fill the available time’, Friedan wrote that many women of ‘intelligence and ability’ were frantically busy during the day, filling the time with meritless busywork (333, 336). Cooking was, of course, a significant part of this, with new and elaborate recipes delivered to housewives and retitled as a creative outlet. In terms of cake-baking, ready-mix brands were active in advertising the possibilities for their cakes. The two brochures, above and below, are representative of a string of advertisements from Betty Crocker at this time. Both detail possible creations housewives could make with a couple of boxes of ready-made cake mix.

Excerpt from Betty Crocker cake advertisement, ca.1956

Partial cover of Betty Crocker pamphlet of recipes for cake mixes, ca.1956

As with all types of food, no matter how beautifully prepared or presented, the cakes advertised to American housewives were, of course, transient. Regardless of how many hours were poured into creating ‘snowballs’ or ‘merry-go-round cakes’, the work of the housewife remained ‘largely invisible’ and the cakes were eaten and, presumably, forgotten just as quickly (Endrijonas 169). Fast forward to 2013, and Betty Crocker continues to encourage the strange combination of convenience and busywork. The Betty Crocker Pinterest site is laden with recipes for extravagant mix-based cakes. It is interesting that what was once developed as a product to save housewives time has since become a base for a thousand different types of culinary time-filling. Since the 1950s, the producers of ready-made cake mixes have attempted to reassure housewives that their work is creative, and, most importantly, valuable. In the very fitting words of Betty Friedan, this culinary busywork is, however, ‘decorated with meaningless details to conceal its emptiness’ (340).


Anne Byrn, The Cake Mix Doctor (1993) Philadelphia: Rodale Publishing.

Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique (1963) New York: W.W Norton & Co.

Ericka Endrijonas, ‘Processed Foods from Scratch: Cooking for a Family in the 1950s’, in Sherrie A. Inness (ed) Kitchen Culture in America (2006) Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 140-174.

Katherine J. Parkin, Food Is Love: Advertising and Gender Roles in Modern America (2006) Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

A Warm Convenience: How McDonald’s Sells Fast Food as Family Food

Food is never just food in our society, especially when it comes to our families. As consumers, we think about food selection, preparation, and serving as a physical representation of the love we feel for our family, a way to give tangible proof of that love, and a measurable expression of that love. As a culture, we value food that requires time: “from scratch” and homemade goods, elaborate meals that carry the weight of tradition, planning, and careful preparation (generally, Parkin, Food is Love). This leaves quite the challenge for companies determined to sell us on foods of convenience — how do they ease the minds of consumers who believe that food is an act of love and appeal to both their efficiency minded lifestyles and desire for emotional connection? How to reconcile these two seemingly disparate interests?

One way that McDonald’s, perhaps the name most commonly associated with fast food in the world, tackled this conundrum with a subtle narrative focused on the time saved for busy families eating at their restaurants translating into “together time” that is all the more enjoyable for being able to have good food without the work. By focusing on the “treat” aspect of a meal from McDonald’s and emphasizing family time and conversation, these ads seek to alleviate the anxiety parents might feel about using convenience food and shifting the focus instead to what convenience “savings” means as a reward.

In this 1980 ad we see an early example of this mindset, where a breakfast prepared by McDonalds means a leisurely morning for the family, who get to hang out in bed, get dressed up for their meal, then take a bike trip together to McDonald’s and “take a well-earned break” from cooking and food preparation for the weekend. The first images presented in this ad are images of family — father being woken by his children, mother braiding her daughter’s hair, children playing and laughing together. The images of food follow this feel-good set-up, creating first the longing for a family morning like this and then how to achieve it: “fresh and hot” eggs, pancakes, and sausage from McDonald’s! And in case there was any lingering anxiety about a fast food breakfast, well McDonald’s assures the parents that they deserve a break today, and no one can provide one like McDonald’s can.

In another ad from the same era, we see a very different narrative of a father who isn’t getting the leisurely time with his daughter that he desires because of their fast-paced lives. He doesn’t get home from work until she’s asleep, and when he’s home she has schoolwork and dance classes that take up all her attention. In this ad, rather than acknowledging the reality that it is more than likely a consequence of a convenience-based lifestyle, McDonald’s positions itself as the solution for that lifestyle. Like the first family, dad and daughter deserve a break from their hectic schedules, and that break is a meal they get to share of burgers and fries. We know this is a special meal for them because the father make sure his daughter gets a sundae as a treat. The idea that McDonald’s provides a “break” from life has moved from a lyric in the previous jingle to the tagline of this commercial, further emphasizing their position as the outpost of family time in an otherwise crazy life.

Furthering on this “shelter from the schedule” narrative, in 1985 McDonald’s produced this ad featuring a father working third-shift who, because of McDonald’s, was able to meet his wife and daughter for breakfast before going home to bed. Because of the wife’s professional clothes and the daughter’s school outfits (which suggest that they are on their way to work and school after breakfast), there is a strong suggestion in this ad that because McDonald’s is close and convenient to his work, they are providing the only meaningful family time the father will have that day. Once again the convenience is the selling point because is enables family time to happen — the mother would be too busy to make breakfast for everyone in time to meet the father, and the father is tired from his long night of work and couldn’t make it home in time for a meal. Because of McDonald’s they are able to see one another and enjoy delicious food. Once again McDonald’s is the savior for hard working, busy families.

Obviously this narrative must have been working for the company, since we can see it used again almost thirty years later in this 2009 Australian ad. Echoing the 1980 Saturday morning setting, this modern version features a busy family on their way to soccer practice for their two sons, who stop at “Macca’s” afterward for a meal together. In contrast to the earlier family, this one is certainly together on this weekend morning but seems to be lacking in quality time, each so busy with practice, other parents, and their teammates to give each other meaningful attention. Once again, McDonald’s is the solution to this craziness — it isn’t until they sit down together to eat that they’re able to interact with one another, and are even rewarded with sibling bonding and alone time as adults while the kids are playing. The tagline here is another promise — because of the convenience of McDonald’s, you will be able to love your Saturday mornings instead of just getting through all the things you need to do in your busy lives together.

Finally in this 2011 McDonald’s Arabia ad, the message has gone global. Now instead of just taking a break, we see the children demanding it of their parents, pulling them away from work, meetings, and their Blackberries to spend time with them, completing the circle of McDonald’s as a quick way to enhance a free moment to an active facilitator of those moments. The convenience of a ready-made meal isn’t just a treat but a way to have “family time forever,” something that is always ready when we need it to be. Interestingly, in this ad the McDonald’s logo doesn’t appear until the very end, and there is no McDonald’s food seen at all. The focus is now totally on the family, the benefit of being together, and it’s a given that McDonald’s is the place that facilitates it. Showing fluffy eggs and sizzling sausage (or even just the cartons as in the previous ad) isn’t necessary because the food is familiar enough that it can be evoked without visuals. What’s important is the time spent together, and it’s obvious where the parents are headed once the kids get them out the office door.

Works Cited

classiccommercial. “1980 COMMERCIALS MCDONALDS FAMILY TIME.” YouTube. YouTube, 17 Nov 2011. Web. 22 July 2013.

FamilyQuarter. “McDonald’s Family Brand Ad- Australia May 2009 (45secs).” YouTube. YouTube, 21 May 2009. Web. 22 July 2013.

McDonaldsArabia. “McDonald’s Family Time Forever.” YouTube. YouTube, 21 May 2009. Web. 25 Sep 2011.

Parkin, Katherine. Food is Love: Advertising and Gender Roles in Modern America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006.

TotallyToonz. “1985 McDonalds Breakfast Commercial – Night Shift Dad.” YouTube. YouTube, 28 Jun 2011. Web. 22 July 2013.

tracy80sgirl. “VINTAGE 80’S MCDONALD’S COMMERCIAL DADDY’S GIRL WITH FATHER AND DAUGHTER.” YouTube. YouTube, 25 Nov 2009. Web. 22 July 2013.